Development matters in the achievement of excellence. Ziegler’s (2005) actiotope model acknowledges the importance of tracing pathways to excellence and offers a comprehensive “big picture” model of the individual and contextual factors that are brought to bear in achieving excellence. An individual’s action repertoire, or the actions applied to learning situations, is one of the components of the model. An action repertoire develops over time but what develops and how are questions that need to be explored. This chapter explores how neo-Piagetian developmental theory (NPT) can complement the actiotope model ( Ziegler, 2005 ) via its detailed explication of domain-specifi c development from childhood through adolescence. Visual art is used as an exemplar of how development matters in our consideration of how to articulate the action repertoires of highly able young visual artists and more fully understand how the development of action repertoires unfolds. The way in which artistic action repertoires become increasingly complex and sophisticated is illustrated through the case studies of Wang Yani and Huang Yongyu, highly accomplished Chinese artists. The chapter also considers how intrapersonal and environmental factors support the development of action repertoires that lead to the attainment of excellence.