chapter  3
Confucianism, learning self-concept and the development of exceptionality: Shane N. Phillipson
Pages 25

The relationship between the culture and the academic achievement of Chinese students is an area of enduring interest ( Lee and Mok, 2008 ), particularly when tests of student achievement such as TIMSS and PISA place students from East Asia at the pinnacle of international comparisons (see Tommis and Phillipson, Chapter 13 this volume). Indeed, a number of works have attributed the high academic achievement of students from East Asia to aspects of the Confucian culture, particularly those aspects that relate to the learning environment ( Lee and Mok, 2008 ; S. N. Phillipson, 2007 ; S. N. Phillipson and Lam, 2011; Watkins and Biggs, 2001 ). On the other hand, Chan (2007) proposed that other aspects of Confucianism may hinder the development of exceptional achievement, highlighting its complex and sometimes contradictory nature.