This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book considers as one entity - the Eastern Adriatic, Similarly the countries of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania have been addressed as the Baltic States. It looks at erosion issues associated with the many countries that constitute coastal Europe, together with the resulting engineering strategies introduced as possible solutions to the problem. The book describes both 'good' and 'bad' practices. It presents work on coastal erosion and engineering structures has significantly developed over the past few decades. Coastal erosion and consequent deposition has been a natural process for aeons but sometimes human intelligence leaves a footprint on this landscape of transience and recurring cycles. Erosion is a generic term used to describe landform recession or lowering brought about by natural processes. Since prehistory, coastal areas favoured human settlements and, later, infrastructures protected these assets, as well as people, from erosion and flooding.