How skilled Gaelic football players practice kicking: deliberate or not?
These tenets have been challenged and consequently contradicted in some studies, e.g. Hodges and Starkes (1996) and Ward et al. (2007) where they found that when athletes retrospectively recall their practice histories they rate these deliberate practice activities as enjoyable and rewarding. These findings may not have transpired if the data was collected during the practice session (and not retrospectively). Furthermore, the practice may not have been deliberate in nature. Practice designed to induce a lasting performance improvement requires constant attention (Auer, 1921) and also the mindfulness of both coach and athlete to know when to progress the training stimulus to match the rate of development (Guadagnoli and Lee, 2004).