The processes underlying ‘game intelligence’ skills in soccer players
Liverpool John Moores University, UK 1. INTRODUCTION The ability of players to anticipate the actions of others and to select appropriate decisions under time pressure is essential to expert performance in soccer. These ‘game intelligence’ skills appear to be dependent on perception and cognition (Williams et al., 2011). Over the last two decades or so, researchers have sought to better understand the perceptual-cognitive characteristics that differentiate experts from less skilled athletes (e.g., see Starkes and Ericsson, 2003). Sophisticated eye movement registration techniques have provided information on individual and group differences in visual search behaviours. For example, Williams et al. (1994) demonstrated that experienced soccer players search the display more extensively and pick up early arising visual information to guide their performance when compared with less experienced counterparts.