Cosmopolitanisation in Europe and beyond
Introduction This chapter is explicitly focused on the third democratic polity model, namely the notion of the European Union (EU) as a democratic post-national Union. This model sees the EU as a regional subset of an emerging global cosmopolitan order. The EU has from the outset been considered a regional arrangement, set up to deal with the specific challenges facing Europe after two devastating wars in less than one generation. Cosmopolitanism did not figure as an explicit political doctrine, or as an intrinsic part of the EU’s self-conception.1 But the effort to institutionalise interstate cooperation under a new supranational order no longer based on narrowly defined nationalism has, if not an explicit cosmopolitan vocation, at least cosmopolitan features. A rapidly growing body of literature then also discusses the EU in cosmopolitan terms (Beck and Grande 2007; Delanty and Rumford 2005; Eriksen 2006, 2009a; Eriksen and Fossum 2007a). There are also those such as Ulrich Beck who see the EU as ‘institutionalised cosmopolitanism’ (2006: 114) and as a cosmopolitan vanguard.