Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions: mitigation options and trade- offs
Livestock systems, especially in developing countries, are changing rapidly in response to a variety of drivers. Globally, human population is expected to increase from around 6.5 billion today to 9.2 billion by 2050. More than 1 billion of this increase will occur in Africa. Rapid urbanisation is taking place and incomes in developing countries are increasing significantly, and they are largely responsible for the large increases in demand for livestock products projected for the next 40 years. Considering that the demand for meat and milk is increasing, and that in the future livestock systems are likely to have to operate in carbonconstrained markets, mitigation options for the livestock sector will become an essential component for supplying livestock products within equitably negotiated and sustainable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets. Emissions from livestock systems can be reduced significantly through technologies and policies, and the provision of adequate incentives for their implementation (Steinfeld and Gerber 2010). The objective of this chapter is to highlight options to mitigate GHG from livestock systems and their potential consequences for the use of natural resources and livelihoods of farmers.