This chapter offers a primer on key environmental trends in East and South-East Asia and is organized along the three broad and interconnected physical categories of land, coastal zones and the atmosphere. It explores the difficult land use conundrums that accompany regional growth, with emphases on urbanization trends, food production, and the necessity of retaining the ecological services provided by forests and watersheds. The chapter focuses on marine environments and evaluates stresses to fisheries, reefs, mangroves and other coastal resources. It considers emergent climate change challenges that have the potential to amplify existing environmental degradation as well as create new and unique problems. The chapter explains to illuminate significant environmental challenges facing the region and pose questions about the paradigmatic shifts that are needed in response. Several of the challenges posed by coastal resource degradation relate to the environmental dynamics occurring inland.