This chapter discusses lessons drawn from past experience and examines the challenges ahead and make recommendations. It describes the context of infectious diseases and its significance in transnational security and outlines several key lessons that governments throughout the region have learnt from responding to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak and the influenza A and H1N1 influenza crises. The chapter also examines the transnational health challenges emanating from possible pandemics originating in this region and conclude with some key recommendations. The extent of economic and health disparity is closely related to the level of surge capacity in tackling future pandemics. Responding to pandemics requires multiple government agencies and private organizations to work together in close partnership. Pandemic preparedness should be articulated in such a way that the general public and the target population remain vigilant and alert at all times.