Women, Trade and Livelihoods
Two fundamental results of the process of trade liberalization are: increased labour force participation of women, a process identifi ed as ‘the feminization of labour’, and the unequal distribution of employment opportunities, with women concentrated in lower quality work, and casualized and informalized work. As a consequence, development analysts are beginning to question gender inequalities that affect women’s livelihoods and access to the potential benefi ts of trade liberalization. The benefi ts from the unprecedented growth in global trade and long-term capital fl ows have gender differentiated impacts and these are unevenly distributed across sectors (Tran-Nguyen and Zampetti 2004; ILO/ Commonwealth Secretariat 2003; Kelkar and Nathan 2005; Durano and Franscisco 2006; Durano et al. 2006; Kelkar and Wang 2007).