chapter  3
31 Pages

Racism in the UK: change and continuity: Mike Cole


In this chapter I begin by arguing that ‘race’ is an invalid scientific concept. I go on to identify nine features of contemporary racism. I then look at the neoMarxist concept of racialization and at the nature of institutional racism,before asking the question:‘Why is it necessary to categorize racism?’ I then consider older forms of British racism (colonial racism, antisemitism, and anti-Gypsy Roma and Traveller racism), before addressing some newer forms (xeno-racism, anti-asylum seeker racism, and Islamophobia). I argue that in contemporary Britain, there are a plethora of forms of racism. Given that contemporary British racism is multifaceted, and in order to set the scene for newer forms of racism, I begin by contextualizing them alongside older forms of racism, while also demonstrating that these older forms continue to flourish. For conceptual clarity I deal with colour-coded racism, non-colour-coded racism, and what I call hybridist racism separately. I make use of the neo-Marxist concept of racialization, and a newer concept of xeno-racialization to understand these multifarious forms of racism. I use the Gramscian concept of ‘common sense’ to assess how racialization interpellates1 popular consciousness.Central to these processes of racialization and xeno-racialization are the roles of the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs) and the Repressive State Apparatuses (RSAs).2 I conclude with a consideration of contemporary counter-hegemonic resistance to racism.3