Paris: Urban Area, Technopolitan Spaces and Innovative Firms: The Dynamics of Innovation
Though not as large as London, New York or Tokyo, Paris is undoubtedly acknowledged to be one of the few global cities whose influence extends well beyond their national borders (Llewelyn-Davies et al. (1996)). As far as innovation is concerned, Paris is one of the prominent islands of ‘Archipelago Europe’ identified by Hilpert (1992) in his work for the FAST/Monitor programme of the European Communities Commission. As the capital city of France for more than one thousand years, Paris is the site of one of the most ancient universities of the world. The city has often distinguished itself by its innovating capabilities, and by a strong centralising and polarising power.