Ethnic Minorities and Racism in Welfare Provision
There is a long tradition in social geography of concern and interest in the field of migration, ‘race relations’ and segregation (Jackson & Smith 1981, Clarke et al. 1984). Much of this has been descriptive, attempting to establish, describe and explain patterns of settlement (e.g. Davies & Newton 1972, Newman 1985). Increasingly, however, there has been a trend towards consideration of social problems, including those arising from these differential patterns. Social geographers have also become increasingly interested in the topic of ‘service accessibility’, particularly with reference to the needs of disadvantaged groups. Recent examples include Whitelegg (1982) on health care; Guy (1985) on the shopping behaviour of disadvantaged consumers; and various conference papers on access to justice (in rural Britain) and ‘public service provision’ which included race and health care, and spatial inequalities in education (Mohan 1985). Thus we are, perhaps, moving away from an interest in patterns of social segregation towards a concern for the immediate effects and indirect consequences of segregation. This chapter attempts to extend that movement into the little-charted waters of social-welfare provision.