Refugees seem destined to suffer the same fate at the hands of transnational community studies as they have at the hands of international migration studies – at best exceptionalism, at worst exclusion. Three reasons can be suggested. First, refugees are generally expected to return home, after the end of a conflict or the creation of a new state. Second, where refugees remain in host countries, attention has usually focused on their integration, and refugees are assumed to maintain few links with the ‘homeland’ to which they have chosen not to return. Third, and often as a result of their decision not to return, refugees can be ‘disowned’ by the home state.