chapter  9
Tackling inequality and exclusion
Towards a dimension of active citizenship participation
ByCarlos Machado, Jacques Vilrokx
Pages 20

Although Western societies have witnessed substantial developments in the achievement of equally guaranteed civil and social rights during the nineteenth and twentieth century, the idea of being a citizen – in the whole sense of the word – has been challenged by the economical and structural changes that have occurred in post-industrial countries during the last decades. In this context, and linking new visions of citizenship with new meanings of work, this chapter examines the latest socio-economic trends in European welfare states.