To analyze world politics in the 1990s is to discuss international institutions: the rules that govern elements of world politics and the organizations that help implement those rules. Should NATO expand? How can the United Nations Security Council assure UN inspectors access to sites where Iraq might be conducting banned weapons activity? Under what conditions should China be admitted to the World Trade Organization (WTO)? How many billions of dollars does the International Monetary Fund (IMF) need at its disposal to remain an eﬀective “lender of last resort” for countries such as Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand that were threatened in 1997 with ﬁnancial collapse? Will the tentative Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change be renegotiated, ratiﬁed, and implemented eﬀectively? Can future United Nations peacekeeping practices – in contrast to the UN ﬁascoes in Bosnia and Somalia – be made more eﬀective?