Encyclopedia of AIDS
A Social, Political, Cultural, and Scientific Record of the HIV Epidemic
Encyclopedia of AIDS
A Social, Political, Cultural, and Scientific Record of the HIV Epidemic
Edited ByRaymond A. Smith
Edition 1st Edition
First Published 1998
eBook Published 27 August 1998
Pub. location New York
Pages 650 pages
eBook ISBN 9780203305492
SubjectsReference & Information Science
Smith, R. (Ed.). (1998). Encyclopedia of AIDS. New York: Routledge, https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203305492
First Published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
building in 1988. The group was protesting clinical trials of the antiviral drug azidothymidine (AZT) in which some participants were being given placebos rather than the drug itself. Playwright and AIDS activist Larry Kramer launched ACT UP with an impassioned call to action in March 1987 at the Lesbian and Gay Community Services Center of New York. This image is taken from the only set of photos taken during Kramer’s speech.
Adolescent AIDS activist Josh Lunior (center), an HIV-positive teenager with hemophilia, leads a World AIDS Day discussion with other teenagers at a high school in Poughkeepsie, New York. Peer-led interventions have been demonstrated to be one of the most effective means of educating adolescents about HIV/AIDS.
Defendant Michael Hardwick being arrested in 1987 at a protest in front of the U.S. Supreme Court. The previous year, the Court had set back the gay rights movement by upholding the constitutionality of a Georgia anti-sodomy law in the case of Bowers v.Hardwick. The association between homosexual anal intercourse and AIDS is widely considered to have been an important factor in the Court’s unwillingness to extend the
first (and most controversial} antiviral medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use by people with AIDS. Antiviral drugs can be difficult for patients to take because of their enormous expense, powerful side effects, demanding scheduling requirements, and large dosages.
In part because AIDS has had a stigmatizing association with male homosexuality, female celebrities have been especially prominent in support of AIDS-related causes. Clockwise from top are actresses Susan Sarandon, reading names from the AIDS Memorial Quilt in Washington D.C., in 1988; Whoopi Goldberg at the lesbian and gay March on Washington in 1987; and Elizabeth Taylor meeting members of the National Association
A child with HIV in the northern Indian city of Delhi receives help in a care facility for orphans whose parents have died of AIDS. Deeply impoverished and with about one-fifth of the world’s population, India is expected to have the largest AIDS epidemic of any country in the early 2000s.
Prison inmates generally lack access to clean needles and condoms while incarcerated because both drug use and sex are illegal in prisons. This inmate at a correctional facility in Rahway, New Jersey, unsuccessfully lobbied prison administrators in 1985 for sterile-needle and condom distribution behind bars.
The process of death and dying involves not only people with HIV/AIDS alone but also their partners, families, and friends. AIDS activist David Summers (top left photo at center, with his partner Sal Licata at right) attended a party to celebrate his birthday one week before his death from AIDS in 1986. By the winter of 1990, Licata was himself dying of AIDS-related wasting and opportunistic infections (top right). Licata’s ashes are mixed with those of
protest repressive measures proposed by the German state of Bavaria, one of the few places in northern Europe to consider the quarantine of people with AIDS. The measures, championed by a politician named Gauweiler and likened to pogroms (historical organized attacks on Jews), were eventually defeated.
As part of the first German national conference of people living with HIV/AIDS in 1990, participants demonstrated in the city of Frankfurt am Main. The banner translates roughly as “Passion needs no justification,” reflecting a rejection of the blame often placed on people who contract HIV through sexual activity.
The first U.S. made-for-television movie about AIDS was An Early Frost, starring Aidan Quinn (right) as a gay lawyer with AIDS, with Ben Gazzara and Gena Rowlands as his parents. The film is credited with breaking the silence about AIDS in television drama and working to dispel common myths about AIDS.
AIDS-awareness campaigns have often employed imagery and messages designed for gay men, women, or adolescents but have targeted middle-aged heterosexual men less commonly. This poster from the Swiss “Stop AIDS” campaign addresses itself directly to the latter group with the message, in French: “I’ve never kept faithful to any woman. But always to the condom.”
Robert Gallo (right), formerly of the U.S. National Cancer Institute, is credited as one of the discoverers of HIV along with Luc Montagnier (left), formerly of the Pasteur Institute of Paris. The discovery of the virus was steeped in controversy over which scientist was actually first to discover it.
Restrictions imposed by the U.S. government bar noncitizens with HIV/AIDS from entering the country. Such restrictions prevented these international AIDS activists from attending international conferences in the United States, including Dutch activist Hans Paul Verhoef (standing center) who was arrested and held at the border by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS).
In many countries, injecting drug use is hidden because of antidrug laws, making prevention campaigns difficult to implement. This outreach worker, on motorcycle in the Colombian capital of Bogota (with a law-enforcement official nearby), must skirt the edges of the law to provide clean needles.
activists and professionals from many different countries can meet to exchange information and make plans for collaboration. A man from the Caribbean nation of Trinidad and Tobago (left) with a woman from Denmark meet during a panel on AIDS organizing at the International AIDS Conference in Montreal, Canada, in 1989.
Scenes from two video interventions produced by the HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Bottom, a scene from AIDS, Not Us, a dramatization of the lives of five young men, is designed to involve male adolescents in reflecting on sexual risk
Bilingual services in a culturally appropriate setting have been identified as keys to advancing HIV/AIDS prevention among Latinos in the United States. A poster from the Whitman-Walker Clinic in Washington, D.C., uses colloquial Spanish to urge Latinos to “Take Care of Yourself and Your Loved Ones.”
Much of the literature about AIDS has been written by HIV-positive gay men such as David Feinberg, author of Eighty-Sixed and Spontaneous Combustion, and Edmund White, whose works include Nocturnes for the King of Naples, A Boy’s Own Story, and the short story collection The Darker Proof with British writer Adam Mars-Jones.
In Mexico, an indigenous tradition celebrating the spirit of the dead, El Día de los Muertos (Day of the Dead), has been extended to cover people who have died of AIDS. Here an altar in Mexico City in 1988 memorializes the deceased. AIDS activists in Mexico City sewing panels for inclusion in the AIDS Memorial Quilt in 1989. Although some HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services are available in the Federal District, such resources are almost nonexistent in many other parts of Mexico.
Most needle-exchange programs must operate in semi-illegality. In the politically radical environment of New York’s East Village, outreach workers staff a table at which used, potentially HIV-contaminated hypodermic needles are turned in for new, sterile ones. By exchanging needles rather than simply distributing clean ones, these workers are ensuring that the total number of needles in the neighborhood does not increase.
AIDS in older adults, such as this man with HIV from New York’s Greenwich Village, often goes undiagnosed. Not only do many health care practitioners fail to recognize that older people can be at risk of HIV infection, but symptoms of AIDS are often attributed to other, age-related causes.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) was the major cause of death among people with AIDS during the early years of the epidemic. The first clinical trials for aerosolized pentamidine (AP) as prophylaxis against PCP were sponsored not by the federal government but by two community-based organizations: New York’s Community Research Initiative (CRI) and San Francisco’s County Community Consortium (CCC).
During the U.S. presidential campaign of 1988, AIDS protesters declare the “guilt” of various politicians they believe have neglected the epidemic. From front to back are photos of Republican presidential nominee George Bush, then vice president; Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis, then governor of Massachusetts; William Bennett, secretary of education in the administration of President Ronald Reagan; and Republican senator Jesse Helms of North Carolina.
Future president George Bush (center), while serving as vice president in 1987, nominally headed the AIDS Executive Committee of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Seated to Bush’s immediate right is NIH director James B.Wyngaarden; to Bush’s immediate left is Anthony Fauci, director of the NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).
Pictured is the locker room at St. Mark’s Baths, a gay bathhouse in New York. Historically, the social stigma of homosexuality has driven many gay men to limit their sexual expression to furtive, anonymous encounters in public places. In the 1970s, urban gay men—unaware of the emerging risk of HIV/AIDS—reinvented public sex environments (PSEs) as safe venues for casual sexual encounters with multiple partners.
A New Age crystal-healing ceremony being performed for Bobby Reynolds in San Francisco General Hospital’s AIDS Ward #81 A. In 1983, Reynolds was the first person to testify before the U.S. Congress as a publically identified person with AIDS. Alienated from mainstream religions and searching for possible miracle cures, many people with AIDS have turned to nontraditional sources of spirituality.
The AIDS epidemic emerged at a time when both scientific and popular mind-sets had been heavily influenced by the antibiotics revolution of the 1940s, during which cures first became available for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as gonorrhea. Despite initial hopes and expectations, however, a similar cure for HIV/AIDS has proved much more elusive.
The AIDS Memorial Quilt, shown here during its initial unfolding on the Mall in Washington, D.C., in 1987, is a uniquely powerful memorial to those who have died of AIDS. The individual panels are as varied as the people whose lives they commemorate, and the Quilt as a whole evokes the magnitude of the ongoing death toll from AIDS.
In Adam and the Experts, the hero Adam (John Finch) visits his dying best friend Eddie (Benjamin Evett), after having unsuccessfully sought help from the AIDS “experts” of the title. Looking on is The Man (Joseph DiRocco), a fantasy figure who at the moment of Eddie’s death reveals how his life would have progressed had it not been cut short.
Many regard the Broadway productions of Tony Kushner’s play Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes to be the artistic high point of AIDS theater. At the end of Part I: Millennium Approaches, an angel (Ellen McLaughlin) descends upon the main character Prior (Stephen Spinella). Part II, Perestroika, derives its name from the Russian word for “rebuilding” used during the last years of the Soviet Union.
The emergence of AIDS in coastal areas such as New York, South Florida, and California sometimes bred complacency among residents of the Midwest during the early years of the epidemic. In a play on the word “culture,” this poster from Wisconsin depicts three cell cultures in a petri dish marked “Los Angeles,” “Milwaukee,” and “New York.”
Agencies of the U.S. federal government were the target of protests by AIDS activists throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s. At the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) building, members of ACT UP used mock tombstones to protest the agency’s sluggish response to demands for quicker approval of AIDS drugs.
The surgeon general is the official charged with heading the U.S. Public Health Service. Surgeon General C.Everett Koop, appointed for his antiabortion views by President Ronald Reagan, angered conservatives and impressed progressives with his frank discussion of AIDS in the mid-1980s.
different visual art treatments of the AIDS-awareness theme “Silence=Death.” At top, protesters carry signs and wear t-shirts with the stylized pink triangle symbol and simple “Silence=Death” slogan. At bottom, artist Keith Haring adapted the imagery of the three “see-no-evil, hear-no-evil, speak-no-evil” monkeys to promote discussion of AIDS.