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Tuberculosis (TB), called consumption in this early-twentieth-century poster, was on the decline worldwide for decades until the 1980s, when multidrug-resistant strains began to emerge.

Infection with HIV has a profound effect on immunity and thus increases the risk of diseases caused by pathogens that are normally controlled by the immune system. It has become recognized that active TB is more likely to develop in persons infected with both M. tuberculosis and HIV and that HIV-infected patients exposed to TB are more likely to develop the disease.