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HIV/AIDS have had to contend not only with the disease but also with racism in the gay community and homophobia in the black community.

Overall, a substantial portion of the African American community remains under siege from multiple directions. Endemic poverty, persistent racism, widespread drug use, high rates of incarceration, alienation from public health authorities, poor educational systems, intracommunity homophobia, and hostility from lawmakers pose daunting problems. Embedded within all these problems is the HIV/AIDS epidemic, which will require solutions both from within the African American community and from the larger society.