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positive grandchildren, who had lost their parents to AIDS.

In December 1987, the U.S. Congress imposed an immigration ban on people with HIV, which was subsequently written into law in February 1993. This ban runs counter to international public health standards, including the policies of the World Health Organization and the U.S. Public Health Service. Some legislators have even called for mandatory HIV testing of selective groups of U.S. residents, such as persons applying for marriage licenses, prospective immigrants, aliens seeking permanent residency, federal prison inmates, and patients in veterans’ hospitals. Other legislators have gone so far as to support the quarantining of PWAs. The United States also bans HIV-positive people from enlisting in the armed forces.