Psychology in Russia
Two important traditions of clinical and experimental research, associated with I. P. Pavlov, N. N. Lange, V. M. Bekhterev, and others, played a decisive role in the development of psychology in Russia. Most of the early psychological laboratories were established by psychiatrists to serve the needs of psychiatric patients and to facilitate clinical research. For example, the first psychology laboratory was inaugurated by Bekhterev at the Kazan University psychiatric clinic in 1886. In 1894, he opened a laboratory at the Military-Medical Academy in St. Petersburg. This was the second psychology laboratory in Russia. Professor V. F. Chiz founded a similar laboratory at Urievsky University and Professor A. A. Tokarskiy established another at a psychiatric clinic in Moscow (Botsmanova, Guseva, & Ravich-Scherbo, 1994).