Campaigning in the 21st century: change and continuity in American political marketing
Political marketing strategies and techniques have transformed campaigns and elections in the US during the ﬁrst decade of the 21st century. What was creative and new in 2000 was surpassed in 2004; what was exciting and unique in 2008 was improved upon in 2010. Because of the immense changes brought about by technology and online communication over the past decade, a new model of professional political campaigning has been emerging: one that is far less topdown and controlled by political consultants and has greater engagement of ordinary citizens. This chapter describes and evaluates the enormous changes that have occurred in American political marketing, especially with the advent of online communication, and presents a model for 21st-century campaigning, looks at what works and what does not, and suggests areas for future inquiry and scholarly research.