Planning as argumentation and power-acting: theory and methods
The more we know in detail about the problem-solving of planners, the better we can support this planning process by computer. A short characterization of planning problems is given in this chapter. The final plan is seen as the output of a process where different parties and persons (including the planner) attempt to push through their interests. It is differentiated mainly between two kinds of action, both labelled as pragmatic acts: argumentation and power-acting. Both are characterized as models of planning. Owing to a special need for methodological and informational support for discoursive planning, IBIS (Issue-Based Information Systems) was developed. It is a knowledge-based system with special strength in the early planning phases. It is shown in detail, including a computer application. IBIS also functions as a network connecting different support systems under the focus of a planning problem. Some aspects of a model of planning as power-acting are shown: decision procedures as regulations for distribution of power, means of power, the logic of power, and some support systems against the misuse of power in design and planning.