The design of spatial decision support systems in urban and regional planning
Planning methodology has changed over the years as emphasis has shifted from situations in which planners think, plan and design for the people, to one in which both people and planners have become important actors in the planning process. The arguments have been that planners do not necessarily have all the knowledge and the ability to perform planning tasks alone, and consequently should interact more with the people for whom the plan is being made. Indeed, the people consist of two groups: the decision-makers who eventually consider and approve plans, and the common people for whom the plans are being made. It is probably true to say that, for a long time, both groups of people have looked upon the planner as a technocrat whose main interest lies in imposing rules, laws and regulations without much consideration for the views of the people. The need to involve not only planners but also policy-makers in the planning process calls for the introduction of new planning approaches that integrate these three groups of people.