Dispositional Heavy Work Investment: A Review of Assessments Designed to Measure Addiction to and Passion for Work
Snir and Harpaz (2012) developed a model of heavy work investment (HWI) to help advance research on workaholism. Building on McMillan and O’Driscoll’s (2004) work, they considered both time and effort as requisite dimensions of HWI, such that only individuals investing both considerable time and effort at work are considered heavily invested in their work. They further separated HWI into two major subtypes (i.e., situational and dispositional) based on theoretical predictors of such an investment in work. Situational HWI is theorized to stem from external predictors such as basic fi nancial needs and labor-market conditions, whereas dispositional HWI is theorized to stem from internal predictors such as addiction to and passion for work. The HWI model further delineates situational work investors into two types based on the source of external infl uence: (a) personal needs (e.g., employees who need to pay debts) and (b) employer-directed infl uences (e.g., hightech workers); and dispositional work investors into four types based on the source of internal infl uence: (a) workaholics, (b) work-devoted, (c) intimacy-avoiders, and (d) leisure-low-interested. This chapter focuses on the two types of dispositional HWI that revolve around work (i.e., workaholics and work-devoted) and reviews assessments purported to measure constructs that predict such HWI (i.e., addiction to and passion for work). Identifying assessments consistent with the HWI model and that yield reliable and valid data is critical to advancing research on HWI. With appropriate assessments that do not confuse the predictors of HWI with the act of HWI, not only can the model of HWI be empirically tested, but research may reveal similarities and differences between individuals that are addicted to and those that are passionate about their work.