Applying the Biopsychosocial Model to Examine Cross-Cultural Similarities and Differences in Heavy Work Investment Behaviors and Outcomes
Work plays an increasingly important role in the lives of employees in today’s competitive, global economy. Not only is work taking on a more central role in the lives of employees, but the way it is conducted differs greatly from previous decades. People today interact with others from all over the world in a way they never have before. There has been an upsurge of demographic diversity within organizations along with an intensifi ed expansion of international business collaborations, both of which make an understanding of the effect of culture on organizational behavior and outcomes crucial (Lee & Ramaswami, 2013; Tsui, 2007). The increased centrality of work in individuals’ lives has contributed to the phenomenon known as heavy work investment (HWI), which occurs when a considerable investment of time and effort is directed toward work (Astakhova & Hogue, forthcoming; Snir & Harpaz, 2009). While research is beginning to examine the infl uence of culture on HWI (e.g., Snir & Harpaz, 2006), to date, such research has been sparse and fragmented, and perhaps most importantly, fi ndings are equivocal.