Globalized anti-globalists: the ideological basis of the internationalization of right-wing extremism
Ultranationalism (e.g. if in the construction of national belonging speciﬁc ethnic, cultural or religious criteria of exclusion are reinforced, condensed to collective ideas of homogeneity and linkedwith authoritarian political models) doubtlessly is one of the ideological characteristics of right-wing extremism. This could lead to the conclusion that right-wing extremists for this reason do not tend to cooperate on a long-term basis with right-wing extremists from other countries. Especially in the 21st century that is absolutely incorrect. On the contrary, extensive international and transnational networking is taking place on the extreme right, which is more and more interlinked organizationally and ideologically. The conditions of context for right-wing extremists are favorable in the era
of globalization. That globalization aids and abets the evolution and spread of right-wing extremism has been shown repeatedly (see Stöss 2004; Grumke 2006). Globalization processes simply frighten many people: “Thus the fear of the seemingly unmanageable is transformed into fear of something that is not quite as hopeless to ﬁght against, in fear of crime, the antisocial, of minorities and the like, or-what often amounts to the same-a structure is seen behind the threat” (Welzk 1998: 38).2 The processes and impositions of globalization act as a breeding ground of right-wing extremism nationally and internationally. The 2010 electoral success of the right-wing extremist Jobbik party in Hun-
gary may be seen as proof of the above. In a message of greetings, the leader of Germany’s far-right Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD, National Democratic Party) Udo Voigt wrote on April 11, 2010:
Ideologically, there is much agreement between our countries and our two parties … On this day the Hungarian people begins to defend itself eﬀectively against the sell-out, the exploitation by globalization, imperialism, and against the “AmericanWay of Life”with its planned multicultural fusion with strangers…We stand by your side! For a freeHungary, Germany and Europe!