chapter  4
Coloring it Europe? the Europeanization of Czech foreign policy
Pages 15

EU-related changes at the level of structure and process of Czech foreign policy-making The main Czech foreign policy actors are the Parliament, the Government, and the President, with their roles loosely characterized in the Czech Constitution and further explicated at the sub-constitutional and sub-legislative levels (Müller 2007; Kořan 2010). The Czech Constitution is relatively rigid and not easy to change. With respect to the theme of this chapter it says a lot that the most fundamental constitutional change so far was made precisely because of Czech EU accession (Syllová 2002: 38). This change radically reversed the relationship between Czech and international law. Throughout the 1990s, international law was superior to Czech law only in cases of international treaties related to human rights and basic freedoms. In November 2001, the Czech Parliament approved constitutional changes that granted superiority to international law in all cases in which a given international treaty was ratified by the Parliament.2 Another constitutional change was made in order to enable a referendum on EU accession, with a special ad hoc constitutional law to this end adopted in November 2002.3 But a different situation exists on the sub-constitutional and sub-legislative levels, where large numbers of legislative measures were adopted in order to secure the EU accession process.