chapter  1
The foreign policies of the new member states: A framework for analysis
Pages 21

Introduction Even after more than four decades of cooperation between EU member states in the making of foreign policy, beginning with the launching of European Political Cooperation (EPC) in 1970, and with the increased institutionalization of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) since it came into existence in 1993, national foreign policies still exist and matter. This is not to say that EU foreign policy cooperation has not made a difference. As a large number of studies have concluded, because of EPC/CFSP, the foreign policies of EU member states have been considerably transformed.1 It remains arguable, however, just how and to what extent they have been transformed, and whether a truly common EU foreign policy will ever be achieved. While a fairly large body of literature exists concerning the EU impact on national foreign policies, it focuses almost exclusively on the “old” (pre-2004) member states. Only a few studies of the foreign polices of the new member states (NMS) – those joining the EU in 2004 and 2007 – have appeared, most of them examining individual countries (Denca 2009; Pomorska 2007, 2009).2 There are to date no broader comparative studies of the foreign policies of the NMS. This is perhaps understandable, given that these countries have only recently joined the EU. However, by the end of 2012 more than eight years will have passed since the first wave of NMS acceded to the EU, while five of them (Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Cyprus) will have served six-month terms in the EU’s rotating presidency, giving them an even greater chance to influence the making of EU policies. Thus the timing seems right to begin closing this gap in the scholarly literature regarding the foreign policies of the new member states in the EU context. This book offers the first comprehensive comparative study of the foreign policies of the new member states. More specifically, it deals with two basic questions: how has EU membership affected the foreign policies of the NMS? And how have the NMS sought to influence EU foreign policy and with what success? It examines these questions through case studies of each of the 12 NMS from the perspective of a common analytical framework. The remainder of this chapter develops and presents the analytical framework that will guide the

country studies in the chapters which follow. We begin by defining the main (dependent and independent) variables of the relationship we are examining – the impact of EU membership on the foreign policies of the new member states. This is followed by a brief review of two key bodies of literature dealing with the EU impact on national foreign policies – the literatures on European comparative foreign policy analysis and on Europeanization. Insights from both literatures are then used to develop a common analytical framework for examining the foreign policies of the NMS, one which pays special attention to the distinctive issues and characteristics of the NMS, especially the Central and Eastern European (CEE) new member states.