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This chapter provides a useful overview of labour market and social problems in the area, followed by policy suggestions for a comprehensive pension plan. As in most developing countries there are serious problems of poverty, unemployment, non-participation and informal employment, particularly among women, the less qualified, and the elderly. Most of the latter are supported in extended families and have no pension claims. However, nuclear families are becoming more prevalent, raising the need for a public safety net. There is considerable regional inequality in all these indicators. UN and other donors have been mainly responsible for existing programmes to alleviate the currently worsening poverty situation.