Few concepts in the arts are as central to our ordinary commerce with art works yet as philosophically problematic as that of ﬁction. While we seem to have little difﬁculty employing the concept in everyday life, a number of very thorny problems continue to preoccupy philosophers. Most obviously, the very nature of ﬁction calls for clariﬁcation: what distinguishes those verbally or visually presented representations which are ﬁctions from those which are not? Second, there are questions about the notion of ‘ﬁctional truth,’ or, less paradoxically, ‘truth in a ﬁction.’ Third, there are possibly deeper questions about what may be termed ‘truth through ﬁction,’ the capacity of ﬁctions to furnish us with knowledge of the actual world. Fourth there are questions about the mode of existence enjoyed by those characters and events, described in ﬁctional narratives, upon which the truth or falsity of claims made about those narratives seems to depend. Finally, there are apparent paradoxes arising out of our emotional responses to representations acknowledged to be ﬁctional. I shall examine in some detail how the ﬁrst three questions might be answered, and brieﬂy locate the remaining questions in the broader philosophical terrain.