The three chapters in this section are all concerned with delineating the contours of a map of memory that stretches beyond the modern. Esther Leslie’s chapter focuses on the modernist understandings of memory as they emerged during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, in which the emphasis fell on the relations between consciousness and forgetting. Richard Terdiman’s concern is with the relations between memory and postmodernity. His chapter focuses on two phenomena commonly associated with postmodernity: the speed and negation of distance achieved by electronic communications, and the rapid political transformations undergone in Eastern Europe. As a result of these developments, Terdiman argues, in postmodernity, everyday life is ‘catching up with’ memory. Michael Lambek, too, looks beyond modernity, to a culture within which the modern, Western division of memory from history does not apply. Focusing on spirit possession in Madagascar, Lambek suggests that the reach of modern, Western regimes of memory is by no means universal, and that much can be learnt about those regimes by studying domains beyond their influence.