Human Rights Education in Asia: The Case of the Philippines and Beyond
The aim of this chapter is twofold. In the first part it will present the justifications for human rights education in international law and trace the development of human rights education in Asia, focusing on its constitutional origins in 1986 in the Philippines. From this domestic legal foundation, human rights values have been gradually infused into programmes of formal education as well as into Philippine military and police training. In the second part, the chapter will portray the expansion of non-formal human rights education under non-governmental (NGO) auspices, showing them to be dynamic agents actively engaged in promoting values changes. Five cases are given, profiling NGO educational programmes to illustrate the proliferation of human rights education in Asia beyond the Philippines, but under varying conditions of government support, tolerance and hostility. In the concluding section the conditions for acitive NGO support to processes of value change in the field of human rights will be discussed.