chapter  13
International organizations and their bureaucratic oversight mechanisms: the democratic defi cit, accountability, and transparency
ByAlexandru Grigorescu
Pages 13

International organizations (IOs) have long had multiple types of mechanisms intended to improve control over their bureaucracies. Yet, in the post-Cold War era, there has been a noticeable increase in the number and scope of their oversight policies and offi ces. Starting in the mid-1990s, IOs as diverse as the European Union (EU), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) adopted policies allowing for increased public access to information. The Organization of American States (OAS), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) established internal oversight offi ces for evaluation, investigation, inspections, and audits. Starting in 2000 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and United Nations (UN) have ethics offi ces. Organizations such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank implemented whistleblower policies. Within the UN system also there has been a surge in requirements for top offi cials to fi le fi nancial disclosure statements.