The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is the only global institution with the right to legally adopt binding resolutions for the maintenance of international peace and security, and to authorize the use of force to that end. Since the creation of the United Nations (UN) in 1945, there have been debates about who should be represented in this institution. Adapting the institutional structure and decision-making procedures of the UNSC appears to be one of the most diffi cult challenges of the last decades. Several attempts have been unsuccessful, in spite of a range of major and well-prepared proposals. A large majority of UN members prefers reform, but deciding on an option to carry this out is intricate, mainly due to concerns about regional equality, effi ciency and representation by individual member-states.