Human mobility has increased exponentially over the centuries. However, mobility is not synonymous with access to other territories. The state-centric international structure has imposed limits on human mobility, even as global means of communication shorten distances dramatically. At the same time, states are fi nding it more diffi cult to control their borders and to respond to security concerns while respecting individual rights. The increasing complexity of the fl ows and international responses to them introduces ambiguity among norms and interests, and generates confl ict between the rights of refugees and migrants, on the one hand, and the interests of the states managing migration, on the other.