The models question can be most usefully explored through a critical appraisal of the various solutions implied in the health promotion taxonomies. Revealing parallels may be drawn between solutions to the demarcation problem in the philosophy of science and the epistemic basis of health promotion theory. Three kinds of solution may be outlined:
1 that only one criterion is acceptable for promoting health (fundamentalist health promotion);
2 that no universal criterion is possible but some solution is possible (evolutionary health promotion);
3 that no criterion is possible, hence all versions are equally acceptable (eclectic health promotion).