Health promotion has historically drawn on many disciplines and knowledge bases to inform its practice, but it has generally been acknowledged that psychology has been the most important contributor discipline and one which helps to operationalize strategies (Bennett and Murphy 1997; Bennett et al. 1995). This is illustrated by models of health promotion that have clearly drawn on psychological theory. Green et al. (1980), for example, propose the PRECEDE model of behaviour. The model suggests three factors that effect behaviour change: predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing. The first of these influences an individual’s motivation and includes attitudes, beliefs, and values. The second either encourages or discourages behaviour and includes external cues or barriers. The third refers to the reinforcement or rewards that the individual receives from the behaviour change. As such it explicitly draws on psychological theories that include the health belief model and social learning theory. In fact, the primacy accorded psychological theory has provided a strong theoretical basis to the development and implementation of some of the most important evaluative programmes that have been conducted (e.g. Maccoby 1988; Puska et al. 1985).