Figure 1. Schematic model to place organismic, environmental and task constraints in context.
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Furthermore, an awareness of task constraints can be particularly beneficial for coaches. Subtle manipulations of task requirements can be used to direct perceptualmotor search without overburdening the learner with verbal information (Hodges and Franks, 2002). This strategy can be linked to several other beneficial learning phenomena in which learners are encouraged to engage in various forms of discovery based learning (e.g., analogy learning; external focus of attention; and implicit learning). As an example in football, an altered task constraint such as restricting the number of touches allowed in a game can help to direct the learner’s search for more effective ways in which to control the ball (see section 3). The important point is that the responsibility for solving the motor problem is placed upon the learner rather than simply relying upon the coach to provide an ideal solution for everyone.