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restricted joint ranges of motion in the novice performer prior to practice (open square curve in top graph), the changes in joint ranges of motion after practice for the novice and the increasing similarity with the flexible kicking pattern of the skilled performer, with practice. Data from Anderson and Sidaway (1994). Reprinted with pennission from AAHPERD.
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These findings supported the dynamical systems interpretation of skill acquisition promoted by Newell (1985), based on Bernstein’s (1967) insights. He argued that, early in learning, players typically assemble fairly functional, but rigid, coordination structures to satisfy specific task constraints of football such as passing, dribbling and shooting a ball, whereas later in learning, skilled players practice controlling or varying the parameters of the basic coordinative structure to enhance flexibility of skill performance.