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Table 1. The material properties of the heading model.
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The total mass of the base head and neck model in this study was 4.8 kg (base mass model). As an initial condition of impact, the horizontal velocity of the head and neck was 0 m.s−1 and that of the ball was −6.65 m.s−1 for the validity check. For the general parameter analysis, the velocity of the head and neck was 5 m.s−1 and that of the ball was −10 m.s−1. The simulation was carried out for the mass of the head and neck between 100% to 50% at intervals of 10%. In this study, MSC/Dytran (MSC Software Corp.), an explicit integral solver, was used as the solver in each simulation. The MSC/Patran Software (MSC Software Corp.) was used for the pre-and post data processing. The calculation time of each simulation was about 16 hours using a PC (NEC Express 5800).