chapter  88
Perceptions Towards the Causes of Success and Failure among Youth Footballers
Pages 3

The theory of attribution had been studied in detail in the sport domain (Rejeski and Brawley, 1983). Sports orientated researchers have usually focused on explanations forwarded by athletes on the experience of success or failure they went through. In general, this theory focused on the process whereby individuals interpret their daily happenings, later try to explain why they happened (Jones et al., 1971). The achievement motivation of the Attribution Theory model specifically reflects the individual’s interest in the search for explanations of the achievements he/she had acquired (Weiner, 1985). To simplify, Weiner (1972) combined four main factors, which were ability (stable internal factor), effort (always a changing and unstable internal factor), task difficulty (always stable and unchangeable external factor) and luck (unstable and changeable external factors). These factors were classified as the cause of successes and failures, which were transformed into two dimensions of main causes. These two dimensions were labelled stability and locus of control. The stability dimension consists of stable and unstable while the locus of control dimension consists of internal and external factors. Locus of control means that the individual believes that whatever had happened was caused by him/her or caused by other people. Athletes who are fond of internal control believe that whatever had happened was caused by their own actions. On the other hand, athletes who were inclined towards external control stated that their achievements were mainly influenced by factors such as luck, opportunities and other people.