chapter  93
The Relative Effects of Demonstrations and Outcome Information in the Teaching of Novel Motor Skills
Pages 4

Coaches often provide learners with prospective information outlining what to do (e.g., demonstration or verbal instruction), followed by retrospective information to relay what was done (e.g., outcome information such as knowledge of results or performance). In tasks where there are both outcome goals (e.g., kick a ball a certain distance) and movement goals (i.e., copying a specific technique), demonstrations and feedback interact such that it is important to determine their differential effect on task success. Carroll and Bandura (1982) suggested that the acquisition of a novel skill relayed through a demonstration can be accelerated by the provision of visual feedback. However, the task examined by Carroll and Bandura (1982) only required the reproduction of movement goals. In tasks that require multiple goals (i.e., movement and outcome) outcome information may become the priority at the expense of movement information.