Figure 1. Model of the experimental setup in experiment (a). Figure 2. Data from the force plate, force versus time. Impact on small area (left) and large area (right). Note that the maximal force is approximately twice as large for impacts on the large area, and that the duration is only half as long.
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Six sub-elite soccer players (23-29 years, 1.73-1.87 m, 63-87 kg, practice 4 times per week) kicked 20 toe kicks and 20 instep kicks with no run-up in an indoor gymnasium. The subjects were instructed to change the execution time of the kicks ensuring a range of ball velocities after impact from 11.5 m.s−1 to 22.2 m.s−1 The kicks were high-speed filmed at 240 Hz (JVC DV 9700, JVC, USA) and the positions of the ankle joint, the head of the fifth metatarsal and the ball were digitized using APAS (Ariel Performance Analysis System, Ariel Dynamics Inc, CA, USA).