Since the early 1980s, most major Japanese car makers have opened transplant manufacturing facilities in the United States. Currently there are eight major transplant assembly facilities in the United States and three more in Canada. According to our most recent estimates, there are 270 transplant automotive parts suppliers in the United States. By the early 1990s, the transplants will be turning out roughly 2.5 million vehicles-one-fifth of all cars produced in the United States. The total amount of transplant investment (including assemblers and suppliers) currently exceeds $10 billion dollars.