This chapter examines the governing strategies and social policies adopted by administrations in Hong Kong during the colonial and post-colonial eras to maintain their political legitimacy. It argues that during both eras, government policy has largely been shaped by the doctrine of benevolent government and the idea of minben (people-as-basis) in the Confucian tradition. Based on textual analysis, the paper further argues that the philosophical foundation of the doctrine of benevolent government and the idea of minben can be traced to the Confucian ethic of care. At the end of the paper, empirical ﬁndings which show that people uphold the Confucian values that underpin social policy in Hong Kong are presented. Finally, the paper concludes that because it is deeply rooted in a Confucian tradition widely supported by the public, social policy in Hong Kong is an essential means for the government to secure its political legitimacy.