Before beginning my discussion of Book 5, I need to raise at the outset two important methodological problems relating to the study of the Hellenica. The first has to do with examining Book 5 as an isolable part of the history. Technically speaking, such an examination is based at best on a guess, and at worse on a fallacy. The book divisions of the Hellenica, like many other ancient histories, are not the original ones; it can be shown that what ancient readers knew as Book 3 is not our Book 3, and this discrepancy can be assumed for all the book divisions.1 But having said that, there is a thematic integrity to the narrative leading up to and moving beyond Xenophon’s denunciation of the Spartan seizure of the Theban acropolis, the Cadmea, at Hell. 5.4.1 that roughly corresponds with the Book 5 we know. I believe Xenophon composed this portion of the Hellenica as something of a unit and that is what matters most, even if the original boundaries of the book were marginally different.