chapter  1
XENOPHON, HISTORY AND ORDER
The battle of Mantinea
Pages 22

Between the so-called King’s Peace of 387/6 and the peace of 362/1, no fewer than three and possibly four general peaces were arranged among the Greek states, in addition to numerous bilateral and multilateral treaties. This profusion of settlements eloquently underscores the fact that in the first half of the fourth century the Greeks were almost continually at war with one another.1 All of the early common accords were negotiated at the court of the great king of Persia (thus the name ‘King’s Peace’). This was not because the Persian dynasts regretted the violence of continuous Greek internecine war, but rather because, since the latter phases of the Peloponnesian War, their policy aimed at keeping at least a rough balance of power maintained throughout the Greek world. The substance of these pacts was always the same: the Greeks promised to respect the sovereignty of all states, both large and small, on the mainland, and the king promised to use force against any who broke this clause. The price of this guarantee was that the Greeks were forced to acknowledge the king’s authority over their brethren in Asia Minor.