To describe criminology in Europe is an almost impossible task. The question of ‘What is criminology?’ has echoed down through the years in each country, fuelled by the constantly reviving debates over the boundaries between criminology and other ‘ologies’. They are territorial battles over intellectual spheres of interest, which yet often reflect deeper paradigmatic changes in ideas about the nature of crime and of offending, about their social and individual roots. The question of ‘What is criminology?’ takes on a more problematic form in the wider terrain of Europe. Though there is no country in which only one model of criminology exists, yet there are still cultural traditions of criminology which render its practice and theoretical enquiry different in the different countries. It is a situation in which it is tempting to offer stereotypes, but one that is changing rapidly, and in which those stereotypes offer too facile and too superficial a solution. This chapter can only be a personaland very partial and limited-view of some of those traditions.