The National Curriculum (NC) reflects the age-related organisation of education in England and Wales. Pupils begin eleven years of compulsory education at the age of 5 and may leave school at the age of 16. These are identified as year 1 through to year 11 respectively, and are grouped into four key stages (see Table 2.1). The NC requires that pupils in Key Stage 3 (KS3) should study English, Mathematics, Science, Technology (Design Technology and IT), History, Geography, Art, Music, Physical Education, a modern foreign language and Religious Education. This requirement is reduced to English, Mathematics, Science, Technology (Design Technology and IT), Physical Education, a modern foreign language, and Religious Education at Key Stage 4 (KS4). In Wales, the KS3 requirements are the same as in England, with the addition of Welsh, but at KS4 there is no mandatory requirement to study Technology or a modern foreign language.